Renewable energy technologies are a broad array of solutions to one of Vermont’s most pressing issues: how to transition away from fossil fuels, achieve energy independence and stability, and foster a cleaner, more sustainable way of life. Click the links below to find out how each of these unique, intelligent technologies are helping move us toward a renewable energy future.

Or, take a look at an Introduction to Renewable Energy Options for a brief overview of each renewable energy technology.


Bioenergy includes Biomass, Biofuel, and Biogas technologies, which harnesses biological matter, liquids, and gasses to produce heat, electricity, and fuel. These technologies strengthen rural economies and keep Vermont farm and forestlands open and productive, and provide fuels with lower atmospheric CO2, and turn waste into electricity. Biomass | Biofuels | Biogas


Efficiency includes the technologies, systems, and designs that allow us to do more while using less energy. The compact fluorescent light bulb has become an icon of efficiency for just that reason; it uses much less electricity to create the same amount of light. Here in Vermont, where the winters are cold and driving is a crucial part of rural transportation, efficiency has become a leading way to cut costs, reduce emissions, and do more with less. Find out More


Geothermal, or ground source heating, is the direct use of energy absorbed from the sun at the earth’s surface and supplemented from the earth’s core. The modern geothermal heating and cooling system relies on the stable (55 degrees Fahrenheit) temperature of the earth, or of groundwater in a well, along with an electric heat pump to efficiently and cheaply heat homes in the winter, and keep them cool in the summer. Find out More


Hydropower relies on the gravitational force of flowing water, usually from a dammed body of water, to spin a turbine and generate electricity. In addition to the low Co2 output, hydropower is consistent and efficient. Hydropower has become the most-used form of renewable energy, accounting for approximately 20 percent of the world’s electricity in 2006; hydro has no carbon emissions and is both renewable and sustainable. Find out More


The most common and widespread application of renewable energy, solar panels can be seen on houses, apartment buildings, and offices, around the world — soon even the White House! Connected with net metering, solar photovoltaic systems can literally run the homeowner’s electrical meter backwards, while solar thermal can drastically reduce the cost of heating hot water. Find out More


Wind turbines that harvest the kinetic energy (via rotating propellers) of the wind can be seen in action producing utility, commercial, and residential scale electricity. House or building-scale wind turbines are typically tied into the local electrical supply in an arrangement called net metering, which feeds any excess power generated back to the local utilities — actually running the wind system owner’s electric meter backwards. Find out More 


Transportation accounts for much of Vermont’s energy consumption.  With new advances in technology and the electrification of the transportation sector, more transportation can now be renewable.


New advances and a continual decrease in the cost of battery technology mean that renewable energy can be stored when it is abundant and cheap to be used when it is less abundant.



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